A classical text on art, enumerates noteworthy factors in paintings: the line sketch, firmly and gracefully drawn, is considered the highest element by the masters; shading and depiction of modelling are valued by others; the decorative element appeals to feminine taste; and the splendour of colour appeals to common taste.
Music and dance, ritual customs, modes of worship, and literary ideals are similar throughout the subcontinent, even though the region has been divided into kaleidoscopic political patterns through the centuries.
In the sculpture of this period Indian themes and modes have softened the Western style.
Foreign influence is evident after the invasion of the Kushāns in the 1st century , but the native element predominated and overwhelmed the foreign influence.
Although South Asia has continually been subjected to strong outside influences, it has always incorporated them into native forms, resulting not in imitation but in a new synthesis.
This may be seen even in the art of the Gandhāra region of Pakistan, which in the 4th century was immersed in Greco-Roman tradition.